Manual Page for MIAQ

A Multi-Chamber Indoor Air Quality Modeling Package

Version 4.1.0


This manual is provided to assist you in the use of MIAQ, a multichamber indoor air quality modeling package that simulates the airborne concentration and deposition of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The manual is focused primarily on the MIAQ input program, which is a standalone program (included in the MIAQ software distibution) that uses the MIAQ FORTRAN-77 library and allows users to specify simulation commands in an ASCII input file.

MIAQ was originally authored in the late 1980's by William W. Nazaroff as part of his Ph.D. disseration research in the Environmental Engineering Science Department at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. It has since undergone a number of revisions, particularly with respect to its use on a variety of computer platforms (e.g., Linux), and as a shared library with programs such as S-PLUS or R (see http://www.r-project.org). This highly-configurable research software has been checked and used by researchers in the fields of indoor air and human exposure, but it has not been thoroughly tested.

MIAQ is distributed under the GNU General Public License (see http://www.gnu.org).


Copyright (c) 1988 William W. Nazaroff
Copyright (c) 1999-2002 Neil E. Klepeis
(This manual is based on the initial MIAQ4 documentation prepared during September 1988 by William W Nazaroff)
(Manual converted to HTML by Neil Klepeis - 16 Sep 99)
(Updated by Neil Klepeis - 2 Dec 2001 and 4 Apr 2002)



Table of Contents


T e r m s - o f - U s e

MIAQ - a multi-chamber indoor air quality modeling package

Copyright (C) 1988-2000 William W. Nazaroff
Copyright (C) 1999-2001 Neil E. Klepeis

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
 


C o n t a c t

For more information on MIAQ please contact:

Neil E. Klepeis
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
One Cyclotron Road, MS 90-3058
Berkeley, CA 94720
Email: nklepeis@uclink.berkeley.edu, neklepeis@lbl.gov
 


I n t r o d u c t i o n

The purpose of this manual is to describe the commands one needs to include in an MIAQ input file. However, with version 4.1.0 of MIAQ, the software has been rewritten to make it possible to use it as a shared library. The MIAQ software package can now be used as a dynamically loaded shared library with programs such as S-PLUS or R, which are systems for data analysis and graphics (see http://www.r-project.org). When used in this way MIAQ input parameters are specified as arguments to a call of the main `MIAQ' subroutine.

Stand-alone programs are distributed with the MIAQ software package that make use of the new MIAQ library by either specifying input parameters internally (the test program) or reading input specifications from a text file (the input program), and then calling the `MIAQ' subroutine. The test program runs the `cig002c' test case, for which the input file is included at the end of this manual.

To use the MIAQ package as a library, you should examine the test program source code, using it as a template. If you simply want to use MIAQ as a stand-alone application you should execute the input program. The remainder of this manual deals with the execution of the input program and the commands that can be specified in the MIAQ input file.
 


U s i n g - t h e - input - P r o g r a m

The MIAQ input program recognizes a total of 70 commands or instructions. The commands have one of eight initial keywords that distinguish among three main types of commands.  The keyword DATA indicates that subsequent information provides input data for the simulation (input commands).  The keyword PRINT indicates that the command alters the form of the output records (output  commands).  The remaining keywords - CHECK, SET, PRESET, MODEL, SOLVE, and TEXT - indicate that the command will affect the manner of execution of the program (execution commands).

From the user's point of view, the input program is executed by first preparing an input file (using a text editor) that contains a list of commands, including input data. In addition to the input file, there are seven output files. These files have specific extensions to the command rootname as follows:

ROOTNAME.DAT - INPUT FILE
ROOTNAME.DOC - OUTPUT FILE FOR DOCUMENTING SIMULATION, BY DEFAULT SENT TO STANDARD OUTPUT
ROOTNAME.ERR - OUTPUT FILE FOR PRINTING ANY WARNINGS/ERRORS, BY DEFAULT SENT TO STANDARD ERROR
ROOTNAME.GAS - OUTPUT FILE FOR PRINTING GASEOUS SPECIES CONC.
ROOTNAME.AER - OUTPUT FILE FOR PRINTING AEROSOL CONCENTRATIONS
ROOTNAME.FLX - OUTPUT FILE FOR FLUX RATES
ROOTNAME.RAT - OUTPUT FILE FOR REACTION AND TRANSFORMATION RATES
ROOTNAME.DEP - OUTPUT FILE FOR DEPOSITION ONTO SURFACES

The ROOTNAME for all these files must be provided on the input program's command line (WITHOUT ANY EXTENTION). For example, miaq-input run001, where run001 is the ROOTNAME for the current simulation.

A command comprises a command line plus, in some cases, additional data lines. The data lines must be contiguous with the command line. The first 1-4 words of the first line of a command specify it. The program is case-sensitive and the commands must be in upper case letters. Exactly one embedded space is required between words of the command. The remainder of the first line, beyond the 1-4 words that specify the command, is ignored by the program. It may be used to comment on the command.

The specific nature of the command determines whether data lines are required. Execution commands and output commands often have no data line. Input commands always have one or more additional data lines.

The individual commands in the program input are strictly formatted and the program is relatively unforgiving of certain errors in the preparation of the input file. The output of the program provides considerable feedback on how the input file was interpreted and this should be used as a check that the program and the investigator agree on the conditions of the simulation.

In general, commands may appear in any order and a command may be appear in a input file more than once. The exception is SOLVE, which causes the program to branch directly to the solution procedure. Thus, SOLVE must be the last command in an input file. If input commands conflict, the latest one overwrites previous ones.

Individual simulations are restricted to a contiguous portion of a single calendar day. For multiday simulations, the individual days should be simulated in order and the final pollutant concentrations used as initial conditions for the next day. A simulation may begin and end at any time of the day (see command SET TIME).

Many of the input data are specified as hourly averaged values. The boundaries for these data occur on the hour, local time. When the program needs data at a specific time it interprets the input based on either a linear interpolation or on a step-wise jump with steps occuring on the hour. All hourly input data are considered to begin at 0000 hours, regardless of the time at which the simulation begins. Thus, if only the hours 1200-1600 are to be simulated, the user must input 16 or 17 hours worth of data for all parameters for which input data are needed. The first 10 hours can be dummy values; however, if the parameter value is determined by linear interpolation, the 11th value will influence input values prior to 1230. (For the periods 0000-0030 and 2330-2400, linearly interpolated parameters are assigned the hourly-averaged value for the first and last hour, respectively.)

The simulation location is set by default to Los Angeles (latitude 34.058 deg, longitude 118.25 deg, time zone 8). This only affects the outdoor photolysis rates and, through the commands DATA WINDOW, DATA INDOOR SCALE UV, and DATA INDOOR SCALE VIS, may affect the indoor photolysis rates. To change this, the parameters SLA, SLO and TZ in the main program must be changed.

In addition to the documentation in this file, the user can find information in the heavily-commented program source files and in the input data file CIG002C.DAT and accompanying MIAQ output, which is included with the software distribution (see the `examples' directory). This input file is reproduced in a later section of this manual.

The input program does rudimentary error checking on the input file. Usually, an error generates a warning message in the output file, the offending input line is ignored, and processing continues.

What follows is a list of the MIAQ input-file commands, which are hyperlinked to a description and the required format of each command.
 
 


L i s t - o f - C o m m a n d s

There are a total of 70 commands

CHECK
DATA AEROSOL DENSITY
DATA DEPOSITION VELOCITY AEROSOL
DATA DEPOSITION VELOCITY GAS
DATA DIFFUSION
DATA FILTER MAKEUP AEROSOL
DATA FILTER MAKEUP GAS
DATA FILTER RECIRCULATING AEROSOL
DATA FILTER RECIRCULATING GAS
DATA FILTER RETURN AEROSOL
DATA FILTER RETURN GAS
DATA HEIGHT
DATA INDOOR RH
DATA INDOOR SCALE UV
DATA INDOOR SCALE VIS
DATA INDOOR TEMP
DATA INITIAL AEROSOL
DATA INITIAL GAS
DATA LAMP UV
DATA LAMP VIS
DATA OUTDOOR AEROSOL
DATA OUTDOOR GAS
DATA OUTDOOR RH
DATA OUTDOOR SCALE
DATA OUTDOOR TEMP
DATA PRESSURE
DATA SOURCE AEROSOL
DATA SOURCE GAS
DATA SURFACE FLOW
DATA SURFACES
DATA SURFACE REACTIVITY
DATA THERMOPHORESIS
DATA TURBULENCE
DATA VENT CROSS
DATA VENT EXFILTRATION
DATA VENT INFILTRATION
DATA VENT INTAKE
DATA VENT MAKEUP
DATA VENT RECIRCULATION
DATA VENT RETURN
DATA VOLUME
DATA WINDOW
MODEL AEROSOL
MODEL GAS
PRINT DEPOSITION
PRINT FLUX
PRINT GAS
PRINT OUTDOOR
PRINT RATE
PRESET BINS
PRESET COMPONENTS
PRESET HOURS
PRESET ROOMS
SET AEROSOL NAMES
SET AEROSOL SIZE GEOMETRIC
SET AEROSOL SIZE SPECIFIC
SET COAGULATION FIXED
SET COAGULATION VARIABLE
SET DATE
SET KINETICS
SET PHOTOLYSIS
SET STEP
SET SURFACE LOSS CONVECTION
SET SURFACE LOSS DEPOSITION
SET SURFACE LOSS FLOW
SET SURFACE LOSS TURBULENCE
SET TIME
SET WALLS
SOLVE
TEXT
 
 


C o m m a n d - D e s c r i p t i o n s

-------------
Command: CHECK

Purpose: To check the interpretation of the input file by MIAQ4 without consuming all the CPU time needed for a full run.

Use: If CHECK appears as a command at any point in the input file, a flag is set to terminate program execution following: (a) complete processing of the inputfile; and (b) preliminary calculations and reporting to UNIT 6 (documentation file).

-------------
Command: DATA AEROSOL DENSITY
 

Purpose: To set the particle density.  This influences the gravitational settling velocity, and the relationship between number concentration and mass concentration within a section.  The particle density must be constant for all sections.

Use: Following command line is one data line with density, in units kg/m^3, given in format (f10.0).

Error Check: None

Default: 1000.0

-------------
Command: DATA DEPOSITION VELOCITY AEROSOL

Purpose: Specify deposition velocity for each aerosol size section.

Use: Requires SET SURFACE LOSS DEPOSITION to be active.  Command line is followed by a series of data lines.  Each data line contains three numbers in format (i4,2x,i4,f10.0).  These are interpreted as the chamber or room number, the aerosol size bin, and the deposition velocity, averaged for all surfaces within the chamber, in units cm/s.  The command is terminated by END as the first three characters in a data line.

Error Check: The chamber number must be between 1 and the total number of rooms, inclusive.

Default: 0.0 for all rooms and all sections

Example: (sets deposition velocity for room 1, section 1 to 0.001 cm/s)
DATA DEPOSITION VELOCITY AEROSOL
   1     1   0.001
END

-------------
Command: DATA DEPOSITION VELOCITY GAS

Purpose: Specify mass-transport-limited deposition velocity for gaseous pollutants

Use: Requires SET SURFACE LOSS DEPOSITION to be interpreted.  Used in combination with data from DATA SURFACE REACTIVITY in analyzing loss rate of gaseous species to surfaces.  The command line is followed by a set of one or more data lines, each containing two numbers in format (i4,1x,f10.0).  The first number is interpreted as the chamber number, and the second number is the mass-transport-limited deposition velocity (units: cm/s) for gases to the surfaces of the chamber.  The data lines are terminated by END as the first three characters of a line.

Error Check: The chamber no. must be within limits.

Default: 0.0

-------------
Command: DATA DIFFUSION

Purpose: Specify the diffusion coefficient for a gaseous pollutant in air.

Use: The command line is followed by a set of data lines, each line giving a species name and a diffusion coefficient (units cm^2/s at 298 K) in format (a4,1x,f10.0).  These data enter into calculations for the surface loss rate of gaseous pollutants for all deposition regimes other than direct specification of the deposition velocity (i.e., forced laminar flow, homogeneous turbulence, and natural convection).  Data input is terminated by END in the first three positions of a data line.

Error Check: The species name must be among those given in the species list (see latter part of this document), and the indoor treatment of this species must be differential.

Default: 0.15 cm^2/s

-------------
Command: DATA FILTER MAKEUP AEROSOL

Purpose: Specify filtration efficiency for removing particles of the filter on the mechanical ventilation supply air.

Use: The command is followed by a set of data lines, each line containing an aerosol section number and a filter efficiency, in format (i4,1x,f10.0).  The filter efficiency gives the fractional mass of particles of the given size section that are removed from the air stream on passing through the filter. The data input processing is terminated with END as the first three characters of a data line. The data are combined with DATA VENT MAKEUP to determine total particle removal rate by this path.

Error Check: The section number must be within bounds: minimum = 1 and maximum = nbin, specified by PRESET BINS

Default: 0.0 for all sections

-------------
Command: DATA FILTER MAKEUP GAS

Purpose: Specify efficiency at which pollutants are removed from outdoor air supply to mechanical ventilation system.

Use: Data are specified in the format RDS as described below. The removal efficiency may be specified separately for each differential species. The data lines have the format (a4,f10.0) and indicate the species name and the removal efficiency, where 1.0 is complete removal. The letters END in the first three columns of a line terminate input for this command. These data are combined
with supply (make-up) flow rates specified by DATA VENT MAKEUP to determine the pollutant removal rate by this path.

Error Check: Warning message is issued if the species name is not recognized or if the species is treated according to the PSSA.

Default: No filtration (0.0) for all species.

-------------
Command: DATA FILTER RECIRCULATING AEROSOL

Purpose: Specify efficiency at which airborne particles of given section are removed by recirculating filter system (air returned to same chamber).

Use: The removal efficiency may be specified separately for each chamber and for each size section.  Input data lines, following the command line, have the format (i4,2x,i4,f10.0) with the numbers interpreted as the chamber no., the section no., and the filter efficiecy.  Data input is terminated with END as the first three characters of a data line.  These data are combined with
recirculation flow rates specified by DATA VENT RECIRCULATION to determine the pollutant removal rate by this path.

Error Check: The chamber and section numbers must be within bounds, otherwise a warning message is issued.

Default: No filtration (0.0) for all sections and chambers

-------------
Command: DATA FILTER RECIRCULATING GAS

Purpose: Specify efficiency at which pollutants are removed by recirculating filter system (air returned to same chamber).

Use: Data are specified in the format RDCS as described below. The removal efficiency may be specified separately for each chamber and for each differential species. The data lines have the format (i4,2x,a4,f10.0) and indicate the chamber no., the species and the removal efficiency, where 1.0 is complete removal. The letters END in the first three columns of a line terminate input for this command. These data are combined with recirculation flow rates specified by DATA VENT RECIRCULATION to determine the pollutant removal rate by this path.

Error Check: Warning issued if chamber no. is out of range, if the species name is not recognized, or if the species is treated according the pseudo-steady state approximation (PSSA).

Default: 0.0 (no removal) for all chambers and species.

-------------
Command: DATA FILTER RETURN AEROSOL

Purpose: Specify efficiency at which particles are removed from air returned from chamber to mechanical ventilation system.

Use: Data are specified as in DATA FILTER RECIRCULATING AEROSOL, described avove.  These data are combined with ventilation return flow rates specified by DATA VENT RETURN to determine the pollutant removal rate by this path.

Error Check: See DATA FILTER RECIRCULATING AEROSOL above.

Default: No filtration (0.0) for all sections and chambers.

-------------
Command: DATA FILTER RETURN GAS

Purpose: Specify efficiency at which pollutants are removed from air returned from chamber to mechanical ventilation system.

Use: Data are specified in the format RDCS as described in the command DATA FILTER RECIRCULATING GAS, above. These data are combined with ventilation return flow rates specified by DATA VENT RETURN to determine the pollutant removal rate by this path.

Error Check: See DATA FILTER RECIRCULATING GAS above.

Default: No filtration (0.0) for all species and chambers.

-------------
Command: DATA HEIGHT

Purpose: Specify the height of a chamber.

Use: Enters into the calculation of deposition velocity to horizontal surfaces under natural convection flow conditions.  Following the command line are one or more data lines giving chamber no. and chamber height (units = m) in format (i4,1x,f10.0).  The command is terminated by END in the first three positions of a data line.

Error Check: The chamber must be within limits (see PRESET ROOMS) or a warning message is issued.

Default: 1.0 m for all chambers.

-------------
Command: DATA INDOOR RH

Purpose: Specify indoor relative humidity data.

Use: Data are specified in the format RDCT, as described in the command DATA LAMP UV, below. Each number specifies the hourly-averaged relative humidity, in %, for a chamber. The relative humidity factors in the determination of water vapor volume fraction, which in turn influences the chemical kinetics.

Error Check: See DATA LAMP UV

Default: 50.0 for all chambers and times

-------------
Command: DATA INDOOR SCALE UV

Purpose: Specify attenuation factor (%) to account for reduction in ULTRAVIOLET- driven photolysis from outdoors to indoors. The command is used to account for photolysis due to light entering through windows and skylights.

Use: Data are entered in the format RDCT, as described in the command DATA LAMP UV, below. The data are interpreted so that, e.g., 100.0 implies the full outdoor value and 1.0 implies 1% of the outdoor value.

Error check: See DATA LAMP UV

Default: 0.0 for all times and chambers.

-------------
Command: DATA INDOOR SCALE VIS

Purpose: Identical to DATA INDOOR SCALE UV except that VISIBLE light transmission is specified.

Use: See DATA INDOOR SCALE UV

Error check: See DATA LAMP UV

Default: 0.0 for all times and chambers

-------------
Command: DATA INDOOR TEMP

Purpose: Specify hourly-averaged temperature data indoors.

Use: Data are entered in the format RDCT, as described in the command DATA LAMP UV, below. The temperature is interpreted to be in deg. centigrade.

Error check: See DATA LAMP UV

Default: 30.0 for all chambers and times

-------------
Command: DATA INITIAL AEROSOL

Purpose: Specify the initial indoor concentration of airborne particle mass.

Use: Each data line following the command line gives the chamber no., the aerosol component name, the aerosol section no., and the mass concentration of the component in that section and that chamber (units ug/m^3) in format (i4,2x,a4,2x,i4,f10.0).  The input data are terminated by END in the first three characters of a data line.

Error Check: Warning message issued, and input line ignored, if chamber no. or section no. is out of bounds, or if component name is not recognized (see SET AEROSOL NAMES).

Default: 0.0 for all sections, chambers, and components.

-------------
Command: DATA INITIAL GAS

Purpose: Specify initial gas-phase pollutant concentrations

Use: Data are specified in the format RDCS as described in the command DATA FILTER RETURN GAS, above, where the floating point number is the initial concentration. The concentrations are specified in ppm.

Error Check: See DATA FILTER RETURN GAS above.

Default: 0.0 for all species and for all chambers.

-------------
Command: DATA LAMP UV

Purpose: Specify ultraviolet photon flux due to artificial lighting.

Use: Data are specified in the format RDCT as described below. The data lines are in pairs or triplets according to whether the simulation ends before noon or after noon, respectively. (See PRESET HOURS.)  The first line of each set gives the chamber number in the format (i4). The second (and, if present, third) line give hourly-averaged and volume averaged photon flux in units 10^15 photon/(cm^2-sec) in the format (12F6.0). A line containing END in the first three columns terminates input for this command.

Error Check: A warning is issued if the chamber number is outside the range for the present simulation.

Default: No ultraviolet photon flux due to lamps

-------------
Command: DATA LAMP VIS

Purpose: Specify visible photon flux due to artificial lighting.

Use: Data are specified in the format RDCT as described in the command DATA LAMP UV, above.

Error Check: Same as for DATA LAMP UV

Default: No visible photon flux due to lamps.

-------------

Command: DATA OUTDOOR AEROSOL

Purpose: Specify hourly-averaged outdoor concentrations of aerosol mass of a given component in a given section

Use: Data lines are given in groups of two or three, according to whether the simulation ends before noon or after noon, respectively.  (See PRESET HOURS.) In either case, the first line of the group gives the aerosol component name and the section number in format (a4,2x,i4).  The subsequent line(s) give the mass concentration (units: ug/m^3) of that component in that section for each hour of
the simulation, in format (12f6.0).  Data will continue to be processed in this routine until the first line of a group contains END as the first three characters.

Error Check:  The component name must be recognized and the section number must be within limits, otherwise a warning message is issued.

Default: 0.0 for all components, all sections, and all times.

Example: (set outdoor SOOT concentration to 1.0 ug/m^3 for section 1, all times)

DATA OUTDOOR AEROSOL
SOOT     1
  1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0
  1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0
END

-------------
Command: DATA OUTDOOR GAS

Purpose: Specify outdoor hourly-avgd gaseous pollutant concentrations in ppm.

Use: This command accepts input data in the format RDST, as described below. The number of data lines in this command depends, in part, on the number of hours from the beginning of the day to the end of the simulation, nt (see PRESET HOURS). If nt is 12 or less, then there are 2ns+1 lines following the first one where ns is the number of species for which outdoor concentrations are specified. If nt is 13-24, then there are 3ns+1 lines following the first. The last line in the command must contain END in the first three columns. The remaining lines are considered as pairs (nt<=12) or as triplets (nt>13). The first line in each group gives the species symbol, beginning in the first column (as with everything, the symbols are case sensitive: all letters must be in upper case). The subsequent line(s) give 1-12 hourly average values. The format for these lines is (12f6.0).

Example: 24-hour simulation for ozone, nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide only

DATA OUTDOOR GAS
O3
  .000  .000  .000  .002  .002  .003  .003  .003  .005  .020  .045  .067
  .098  .121  .100  .090  .069  .045  .022  .010  .002  .001  .000  .000
NO2
  .045  .047  .054  .045  .043  .034  .040  .050  .066  .067  .098  .100
  .112  .141  .131  .112  .109  .089  .090  .077  .044  .034  .045  .044

NO
  .120  .130  .113  .142  .134  .133  .155  .143  .109  .050  .020  .009
  .004  .003  .005  .010  .013  .010  .025  .057  .090  .100  .104  .109
END

Error Check: A warning is generated if species is not treated as "Input" for outdoors, or if the species symbol is not recognized. The input line is ignored.

Default: Outdoor concentrations of all species are 0.0

-------------
Command: DATA OUTDOOR RH

Purpose: Specify outdoor relative humidity.

Use: Data are specified in the format RDT. There are one or two data lines depending on whether the end of the simulation is before or after noon. The data lines have format (12f6.0) and specify hourly averaged outdoor relative humidity, in %.

Error check: none

Default: 50.0 for all times

-------------
Command: DATA OUTDOOR SCALE

Purpose: To specify attenuation factors for outdoor photolysis due to presence of clouds or turbidity.

Use: The data are specified in the format RDT, as given in command DATA OUTDOOR RH above. The numbers are interpreted as the hourly-averaged fraction of the clear-sky light that reaches the earth's surface. Thus, in computing outdoor photolysis rates, the base rates determined by the time and location are reduced if DATA OUTDOOR SCALE specifies a number less than 1.0. The ultraviolet and visible components are reduced by equal amounts.

Error check: none

Default: 1.0 for all times.

-------------
Command: DATA OUTDOOR TEMP

Purpose: Specify hourly-averaged outdoor temperature (deg. C).

Use: Data are entered in the format RDT, as described in the command DATA OUTDOOR SCALE, above.

Error check: None

Default: 30.0 for all times

-------------
Command: DATA PRESSURE

Purpose: To specify the atmospheric pressure, used in calculating the water vapor volume fraction.

Use: The command is followed by a single data line in format (f10.3) that specifies the pressure in millibars.

Error check: None

Default: 1013.25

-------------
Command: DATA SOURCE AEROSOL

Purpose: Specify direct indoor emissions of aerosol.

Use: The command specifies the volume average emission rate of aerosol mass from areal and point sources. Only one source may be specified each time the command is issued; however, the command may be issued more than once. Each source emits one or more components in one or more sections at constant rates over a single time interval. (Time varying sources may be simulated in a step-wise fashion by specifying several sources with contiguous emission intervals.) The limit on the number of sources is currently twenty (20), and may be varied by changing NELIM in the file DIMS.INC. The input for this command is read by the routine EMISP in the following format: The first data line contains the source number, the chamber number, and the start and stop times (in minutes from midnite) in the format (i4,2x,i4,2f6.0).  Subsequent data lines each contain a component name, a section number and a corresponding emission rate (units = ug/min) in the format (a4,2x,i4,f10.0). A line containing END in the first three columns terminates
input for this command.

Error Check: A warning message is issued if the chamber number is outside the expected range, if the source number is outside of the expected range, if the component name is not recognized, or if the section number is outside the expected range.

Default: 0.0 for all sections, chambers, and components.

-------------
Command: DATA SOURCE GAS

Purpose: Specify indoor gaseous pollutant emission rate from sources in units of cm^3/min.

Use: The command specifies the volume average emission rate from areal and point sources. Only one source may be specified each time the command is issued; however, the command may be issued more than once. Each source emits one or more gases at constant rates over a single time interval. (Time varying sources may be simulated in a step-wise fashion by specifying several sources with contiguous emission intervals.) The limit on the number of sources is currently twenty (20), and may be varied by changing NELIM in the file DIMS.INC. The input for this command is read by the routine EMISG in the following format: The
first line contains the source number, the chamber number, and the start and stop times (in minutes from midnite) in the format (i4,2x,i4,2f6.0).  Subsequent lines each contain a species code and a corresponding emission rate in the format (a4,f10.0). A line containing END in the first three columns terminates input for this command.

Error Check: A warning message is issued if the chamber number is outside the expected range, if the source number is outside of the expected range, if the species name is not recognized, or if the species is not treated indoors with the full differential equation (radical species).

Default: 0.0 for all species and all times.

-------------
Command: DATA SURFACE FLOW

Purpose: To specify the free stream air velocity for computing pollutant deposition according to the laminar forced flow regime (see SET SURFACE LOSS FLOW).  Also to specify surface geometry and orientation.

Use: The data lines are interpreted in groups of two or three, according to whether the simulation ends before noon or after noon, respectively (see PRESET HOURS).  The first line of each group gives the number of the chamber, the number of the surface, the orientation of the chamber, the area of the surface (units: m^2) and the length of the surface in the direction of flow (units: m),
with format (2(i4,2x),a2,2f10.0).  The second (and third, as appropriate) lines give the hourly averaged free stream air velocity parallel to the surface (units: m/s), as a function of time of day (format 12f6.0).  The end of the command is realized when the program finds END as the first three characters of the first line of a group.

Error Check: The surface number must be within limits (see SET WALLS); the chamber number must be within limits (see PRESET ROOMS); and the surface orientation must be recognized (allowed values: VE or VI for vertical surfaces,UI for upward isolated surfaces, UE for upward enclosed surfaces, DI for downward isolated surfaces, and DE for downward enclosed surfaces.)

Default: 0.0 for flow along all surfaces, all rooms, and at all times; 0.0 for area of all surfaces of all rooms; 1.0 m for all surface lengths; and VE for all surface orientations.

-------------
Command: DATA SURFACES

Purpose: To specify the surface temperature for computing pollutant deposition according to the natural convection flow regime (see SET SURFACE LOSS CONVECTION).  Also to specify surface geometry and orientation.

Use: This command is analogous to DATA SURFACE FLOW, but is used for the case of particle deposition by natural convection flow in which the surface temperature, rather than the free stream velocity, is the parameter of interest.  The data lines are interpreted in groups of two or three, according to whether the simulation ends before noon or after noon, respectively (see PRESET HOURS). The first line of each group gives the number of the chamber, the number of the surface, the orientation of the chamber, the area of the surface (units: m^2) and the length of the surface in the direction of flow (units: m), with format (2(i4,2x),a2,2f10.0).  The second (and third, as appropriate) lines give the hourly averaged surface temperature (units: degrees C), as a function of time of
day (format 12f6.0).  The end of the command is realized when the program finds END as the first three characters of the first line of a group.

Error Check: The surface number must be within limits (see SET WALLS); the chamber number must be within limits (see PRESET ROOMS); and the surface orientation must be recognized (allowed values: VE or VI for vertical surfaces, UI for upward isolated surfaces, UE for upward enclosed surfaces, DI for downward isolated surfaces, and DE for downward enclosed surfaces.)

Default: 30.0 deg C for the temperature of each surface, in all rooms, and at all times; 0.0 for area of all surfaces of all rooms; 1.0 m for all surface lengths; and VE for all surface orientations.

-------------
Command: DATA SURFACE REACTIVITY

Purpose: To permit surface loss of gaseous pollutants at a fraction of the mass-transport-limited rate.

Use: The command is followed by a set of data lines, each giving a chamber no., a species designation code, a surface number, and a fractional loss rate, in format (i4,2x,a4,2x,i4,f10.0).  During execution, actual loss rate of a pollutant to the wall is computed as the fractional loss rate times the mass- transport-limited value.  The command terminates with END as the first three characters of a data line.

Error Check: Species name must be recognized as one with differential treatment; chamber and surface numbers must be within expected limits; otherwise, a warning message is issued.

Default: 1.0 for all species and all surfaces.

-------------
Command: DATA THERMOPHORESIS

Purpose: To specify the thermophoresis coefficient, K, for particle migration in a near-surface temperature gradient.  See, e.g., Nazaroff and Cass, Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 18, 445-455, 1986.

Use: A series of data lines follows the command line.  Each data line contains an aerosol section number followed by a thermophoresis coefficient with format (i4,1x,f10.0).  The command terminates with END as the first three characters of a data line.

Error Check: The section number must be within bounds (see PRESET BINS).

Default: 0.5 for all sections

-------------
Command: DATA TURBULENCE

Purpose: Specify the turbulence intensity parameter in each chamber as a function of time.  Enters into the calculation of particle deposition velocity if SET SURFACE LOSS TURBULENCE is executed. Reference: Nazaroff Ph.D. thesis, Chapter 4, or Corner and Pendlebury, Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol. B64, 645-654 (1951).

Use: The command line is followed by a series of data lines in groups of two or three, according to whether the simulation ends before noon or after noon, respectively.  (See PRESET HOURS.)  The first line gives the chamber number in format (i4).  The remaining line(s) in the group give(s) the hourly averaged turbulence intensity as a function of time of day (units: /s).  The command is terminated when the first line following a completed group contains END in the first three columns.

Error Check: The chamber number is checked to be within limits; if not a warning is issued.

Default: 0.0 for all chambers and all times

-------------
Command: DATA VENT CROSS

Purpose: Specify hourly-averaged cross-flow rate between chambers. This is air that enters a chamber directly from another chamber.

Use: Data are input in the format RDCCT, as described below. The ventilation data are interpreted in units m^3/min. The data lines are in pairs or triplets according to whether the hour of the day at the end of the simulation is before noon or after noon, respectively. The first line of each set gives the source chamber number and the destination chamber number, in that order, in the format (i4,2x,i4). The second (and, if present, third) line give hourly-averaged flow rate in units m^3/min in the format (12F6.0). A line containing END in the first
three columns terminates input for this command.

Error check: The program checks that the chamber numbers are within the domain of the problem. Also, all of the ventilation data are subjected to a flow-balance check. An error message is given if for any hour the sum of the rates of flow into each chamber do not match the sum of the flows out.

Default: No flow at any time.

-------------
Command: DATA VENT EXFILTRATION

Purpose: Specify hourly-averaged exfiltration and mechanical exhaust rate from chambers. This is air that is removed from the chamber directly outdoors.

Use: Data are input in the format RDCT, as described in the command DATA LAMP UV, above. The ventilation data are interpreted in units m^3/min.

Error check: See DATA LAMP UV, above. Also, all of the ventilation data are subjected to a flow-balance check. An error message is given if for any hour the sum of the rates of flow into each chamber do not match the sum of the flows out.

Default: No flow from any chamber at any time.

-------------
Command: DATA VENT INFILTRATION

Purpose: Specify hourly-averaged air-infiltration rate into chambers. This is air that enters a chamber directly from outdoors.

Use: Data are input in the format RDCT, as described in the command DATA LAMP UV, above. The ventilation data are interpreted in units m^3/min.

Error check: See DATA LAMP UV, above. Also, all of the ventilation data are subjected to a flow-balance check. An error message is given if for any hour the sum of the rates of flow into each chamber do not match the sum of the flows out.

Default: No flow to any chamber at any time.

-------------
Command: DATA VENT INTAKE

Purpose: Specify hourly-averaged mechanical intake air flow rate. This is air that flows from mechanical ventilation system into a chamber.

Use: Data are input in the format RDCT, as described in the command DATA LAMP UV, above. The ventilation data are interpreted in units m^3/min.

Error check: See DATA LAMP UV, above. Also, all of the ventilation data are subjected to a flow-balance check. An error message is given if for any hour the sum of the rates of flow into each chamber do not match the sum of the flows out.

Default: No flow to any chamber at any time.

-------------
Command: DATA VENT MAKEUP

Purpose: Specify hourly-averaged make-up air flow rate. This is air that is supplied from outside to the mechanical ventilation system. This air passes through a filter whose efficiency is specified by command DATA FILTER MAKEUP AEROSOL and DATA FILTER MAKEUP GAS.

Use: Data are input in the format RDT, as described in the command DATA OUTDOOR SCALE, above. The ventilation data are interpreted in units m^3/min.

Error check: All of the ventilation data are subjected to a flow-balance check. An error message is given if for any hour the sum of the rates of flow into each chamber do not match the sum of the flows out. A check is also applied for the mechanical ventilation system, for which this command applies.

Default: No flow into mechanical ventilation system at any time.

-------------
Command: DATA VENT RECIRCULATION

Purpose: Specify hourly-averaged recirculation rate in chambers. This is air that leaves a chamber and returns to the same chamber after passing through a filter whose efficiency is specified by command DATA FILTER RECIRCULATING AEROSOL and DATA FILTER RECIRCULATING GAS.

Use: Data are input in the format RDCT, as described in the command DATA LAMP UV, above. The ventilation data are interpreted in units m^3/min.

Error check: See DATA LAMP UV, above.

Default: No recirculating flow in chamber at any time.

-------------
Command: DATA VENT RETURN

Purpose: Specify hourly-averaged return air flow rate from chambers. This is air that is transferred from a chamber to the mechanical ventilation system, possibly through filters, whose efficiency is specified by command DATA FILTER RETURN GAS and DATA FILTER RETURN AEROSOL.

Use: Data are input in the format RDCT, as described in the command DATA LAMP UV, above. The ventilation data are interpreted in units m^3/min.
 

Error check: See DATA LAMP UV, above. Also, all of the ventilation data are subjected to a flow-balance check. An error message is given if for any hour the sum of the rates of flow into each chamber do not match the sum of the flows out.

Default: No flow from any chamber at any time.

-------------
Command: DATA VOLUME

Purpose: Specify chamber volumes

Use: The command line is followed by a series of data lines, and terminated by a line with the characters END in the first three columns. Each data line has format (i4,1x,f10.0) where the integer gives the chamber number and the floating point variable gives the chamber volume in m^3.

Error check: The chamber number must be within bounds. Otherwise a warning is issued. The offending line is ignored.

Default: All chambers have volume 1.0 m^3.

-------------
Command: DATA WINDOW

Purpose: To specify a window UV-transmission factor that is reaction dependent.

Use: This command permits the user to account for the fact that the UV transmissivity of glass is a function of wavelength, as is the absorption cross section and quantum yield of a photolytic reaction. Parameters are obtained by determining a weighted transmissivity, averaged over wavelength in ultraviolet. The weighting factor is the product of the absorption cross section and the quantum yield for the reaction. To reconcile completely with visible transmission, the result should be divided by the visible transmissivity, typically 0.9. The command is followed by a series of data lines and terminated by the characters END in the first three columns of a line. The data lines have format (i4,1x,f10.0) where the integer gives the photolytic reaction number and the floating point number gives the attenuation factor for that reaction, where 1.0 corresponds to no attenuation. See also documentation for ES&T 1986 gas- phase modeling paper (tape name GIAQMD; model name MIAQ3).

Error Check: The reaction number must be between 1 and 12, inclusive, or a warning is issued.

Default: 1.0 (no UV attenuation) for all reactions

-------------
Command: MODEL AEROSOL

Purpose: Specifies that aerosol dynamics are to be simulated

Use: This command has no associated data lines.  Its execution sets a logical flag (FAERO) that indicates to the program that aerosol concentrations are to be computed.

Error Check: None

Default: (FAERO = .FALSE.)

-------------
Command: MODEL GAS

Purpose: Specifies that gas-phase pollutant dynamics are to be simulated

Use: This command has no associated data lines.  Its execution sets to .TRUE. a logical flag (FGAS) that indicates to the program that the concentrations of gas-phase species are to be computed.

Error Check: None

Default: (FGAS = .FALSE.)

-------------
Command: PRINT DEPOSITION

Purpose: Command program to print averaged acculation of pollutant species onto chamber surfaces. Accumulations are printed at user specified intervals for all species being reported.

Use: The command is followed by a single data line in format (i5) which contains an integer number representing the number of concentration-reporting intervals (as specified by command SET TIME) per deposition-reporting interval.

Error Check: none

Default: No printing of deposited accumulations

-------------
Command: PRINT FLUX

Purpose: Command program to print averaged source and sink terms. Rates are printed at user specified intervals for all species being reported. The source rates are reported separately for ventilation, chemical reaction (or coagulation, for aerosols), and direct indoor emissions. The sink rates are reported separately for ventilation, chemical reaction (or coagulation, for aerosols), wall loss, and filtration. The net chemical reaction source rate, or coagulation rate for aerosols, useful if source and sink rates are comparable (and large) is also reported.

Use: The command is followed by a single data line in format (i5) which contains an integer number representing the number of concentration-reporting intervals (as specified by command SET TIME) per flux-reporting interval.

Error check: none

Default: No printing of source and sink terms.

-------------
Command: PRINT GAS

Purpose: To specify a shorter-than-complete list of gas-phase species of for printing.

Use: The command line is followed by a series of data lines. The first characters in each line give a species name that is to be included in the printed report. The command terminates with the characters END in the first three columns of a line.

Error check: If the species name is not recognized, an error message is printed. Subsequent lines in this command will not be interpreted properly.

Default: All species are printed.

-------------
Command: PRINT OUTDOOR

Purpose: Specify that the outdoor concentrations of pollutants are to be printed.

Use: This command has no data lines; instead it stands alone. If issued, then each time the indoor concentrations are printed the corresponding outdoor concentrations are also printed.

Default: Outdoor concentrations are not printed.

-------------
Command: PRINT RATE

Purpose: To specify that the gas-phase chemical reaction rate "constants" are to be printed.

Use: The command line is followed by a single data line with format (i5) which contains an integer number representing the number of concentration-reporting intervals (as specified by command SET TIME) per rate-reporting interval. In the example contained in this documentation, concentrations are printed every 12 minutes and the rate information is printed every 5 cycles or once per hour.

Error check: none

Default: Rate constants are not printed

-------------
Command: PRESET BINS

Purpose: Set number of aerosol size sections to be simulated

Use: The command is followed by a single data line with format (i5) that gives the number of aerosol size sections.

Error Check: The program checks that the number of sections is less than the dimensional constraint in the program (NBLIM=29 currently; can easily be changed within DIMS.INC); otherwise the error is fatal and the program terminates execution.

Default: 9

-------------
Command: PRESET COMPONENTS
 

Purpose: Allows the user to specify the number of chemical components for the aerosol phase.

Use: The command is followed by a single data line with format (i5) that gives the number of aerosol chemical components.

Error Check: The program checks that the number of components is less than the dimensional constraint (NALIM = 8 currently; see DIMS.INC to change.)

Default: 8

-------------
Command: PRESET HOURS

Purpose: Specify the number of hours from midnight to the end of the simulation.
 

Use: The point of this command is to permit fewer input data to be specified for short simulations. The command line is followed by a single data line which gives the number of hours, nt, in format (i5). If nt is less than or equal to 12, all commands that specify hourly-averaged input data have only a single line (containing up to 12 numbers) for each parameter. If nt>12, then two lines are required for all such commands.

Error check: If nt is greater than 24 or less than 1 an error is generated and the program stops. The upper limit may be increased; however, it is not a trivial matter to do so.

Default: 24

-------------
Command: PRESET ROOMS

Purpose: Specify number of chambers in the simulation

Use: The command line is followed by a single data line with format (i5) giving the number of chambers. The limit in the current implementation is 10, and can be changed by altering NCLIM in DIMS.INC

Error check: If the number specified is greater than the number permitted an error message is given and the program aborts.

Default: One (1)

-------------
Command: SET AEROSOL NAMES

Purpose: Permits the user to specify 4-character names for the aerosol chemical components (e.g., SOOT).  Doing so improves clarity.

Use: A series of data lines follows the command line.  Each line contains a component number and a corresponding component name in format (i4,2x,a4).  The  command is terminated with END in the first three columns of a data line.

Error Check: The component number must be within limits (see PRESET COMPONENTS)
otherwise a warning message is issued.

Default: PH2O, PNH4, PSO4, PNO3, PORG, PCAR, PCRS, POTH

-------------
Command: SET AEROSOL SIZE GEOMETRIC

Purpose: To set the aerosol sectional size boundaries using geometric spacing.

Use: The command is followed by a single data line giving the minimum and maximum particle diameters (units: um) in the solution domain, with format (2f10.0).  The program then computes sectional boundaries so that on a logarithmic scale the width of each section is constant.

Error Check: None

Default: 0.01-10 um diameter.

-------------
Command: SET AEROSOL SIZE SPECIFIC

Purpose: To set the aerosol sectional size boundaries to specific values.

Use: The command is followed by a series of data lines, each containing the number of the aerosol size section and the diameter (unit: um) of the smallest particle in the section, with format (i4,1x,f10.0).  The sections are contiguous.  To enter the upper bound on the largest section, use NB+1 for the size section number, where NB is the number of size sections.

Error Check: The size section number must be no greater than the number of size sections plus one.

Default: See SET AEROSOL SIZE GEOMETRIC

-------------
Command: SET COAGULATION FIXED

Purpose: Specify that coagulation of airborne particles is to be included in the modeling calculations using fixed values of the coagulation coefficients.

Use: The command is followed by a single data line giving the temperature (units: K) and the turbulence intensity parameter (units: /s) at which the coefficients are to be computed (format 2f10.0)

Error Check: None

Default: Coagulation not included in the analysis.

Note: As of January 1988, the turbulence shear component of the coagulation coefficient is no longer included.

-------------
Command: SET COAGULATION VARIABLE

Purpose: Specify that coagulation of airborne particles is to be included in the modeling calculations using variable coagulation coefficients that are bilinearly interpolated between two sets of air temperatures and turbulence intensity parameters.

Use: The command is followed by two data lines, each giving a temperature (units: K) and turbulence intensity parameter (units: /s) with format (2f10.0). The coagulation coefficients are computed for all four combinations of temperature and turbulence intensity.  For each time interval, the program computes the coagulation coefficients to be applied by bilinear interpolation between these four sets of values, given the current temperature and turbulence intensity.

Error Check: None

Default: Coagulation not included in the analysis.

Note: As of January 1988, the turbulence shear component of the coagulation coefficient is no longer included.

-------------
Command: SET DATE

Purpose: Specify the date to be simulated

Use: The command is followed by a single data line, specifying the day of the month, the month of the year, and the year. The format is (i2,1x,i2,1x,i4). The day of the month is a number in the range 1-31. The month is a number in the range 1-12. Aside from documentation purposes, the command affects the computation of solar zenith angle which in turn affects the outdoor photolysis
rates and the outdoor radical concentrations.

Error Check: None

Default: June 27, 1974

-------------
Command: SET KINETICS

Purpose: Specify extent of gas-phase chemistry to be included in simulation

Use: This command is followed by a single data line. The first four characters of the line specify one of three options. FULL means that the complete kinetic mechanism is simulated. NONE means that all homogeneous chemical reactions are turned off. PHOT means that the first three reactions, i.e. those constituting the primary photolytic cycle, are simulated, but all others are inactive.

Error Check: If an improper code is used, it is interpreted as FULL.

Default: FULL

-------------
Command: SET PHOTOLYSIS

Purpose: Hold outdoor photolysis rates constant.

Use: The command line is followed by a single data line containing the hour and minute of the time at which the solar angle is to be calculated. The format for this line is (2f5.0). For example, if the outdoor photolysis rate is to be fixed at zero, issue the following command:

PHOT  1.0 0.0

This will set the time to be 0100 and, as the sun is below the horizon, the outdoor photolysis rates are zero.

Error check: none

Default: The outdoor photolysis rates are allowed to vary according to the solar time

-------------
Command: SET STEP
 

Purpose: Directs program to interpret data from DATA OUTDOOR SCALE, DATA INDOOR SCALE UV, DATA INDOOR SCALE VIS in a stepwise fashion.

Use: The command stands alone: there are no data lies. If issued, the data from the three commands DATA OUTDOOR SCALE, DATA INDOOR SCALE UV, DATA INDOOR SCALE VIS are held fixed during any clock hour and are changed to a new value in a
stepwise fashion on the hour. Otherwise, the data are interpreted using linear interpolation.

Default: Linear interpolation

-------------
Command: SET SURFACE LOSS FLOW

Purpose: To specify that pollutant deposition onto surfaces is to be computed according to the forced laminar air flow regime.  Reference: Nazaroff and Cass, Mass-transport aspects of pollutant removal at indoor surfaces, submitted to Environment International; or Nazaroff, Mathematical Modeling and Control of Pollutant Dynamics in Indoor Air, Ph.D. Thesis, Caltech, 1988, Chapter 4.

Use: The command has no associated data lines.  See DATA SURFACE FLOW to set surface geometries and near-surface air velocity.  See DATA SURFACES and DATA INDOOR TEMP to set surface and air temperatures.

Error Check: None

Default: Deposition not computed

-------------
Command: SET SURFACE LOSS DEPOSITION

Purpose: To specify that pollutant deposition onto indoor surfaces is to be computed according to user-specified values of the deposition velocity.

Use: The command has no associated data lines.  See DATA DEPOSITION VELOCITY GAS, DATA DEPOSITION VELOCITY AEROSOL, DATA SURFACES, and DATA SURFACE REACTIVITY to specify deposition velocities and surface geometries.

Error Check: None

Default: Deposition not computed

-------------
Command: SET SURFACE LOSS CONVECTION

Purpose: To specify that pollutant deposition onto surfaces is to be computed according to the natural convection air flow regime.  Reference: Nazaroff and Cass, Mass-transport aspects of pollutant removal at indoor surfaces, submitted to Environment International; or Nazaroff, Mathematical Modeling and Control of Pollutant Dynamics in Indoor Air, Ph.D. Thesis, Caltech, 1988, Chapter 4.

Use: The command has no associated data lines.  See DATA SURFACES to set surface geometries and temperatures; see also DATA INDOOR TEMP.

Error Check: None

Default: Deposition not computed

-------------
Command: SET SURFACE LOSS TURBULENCE

Purpose: To specify that pollutant deposition onto surfaces is to be computed according to the homogeneous turbulence flow regime.  Reference: Nazaroff and Cass, Mass-transport aspects of pollutant removal at indoor surfaces, submitted to Environment International; or Nazaroff, Mathematical Modeling and Control of Pollutant Dynamics in Indoor Air, Ph.D. Thesis, Caltech, 1988, Chapter 4.

Use: The command has no associated data lines.  See DATA SURFACES and DATA TURBULENCE to set surface geometries, surface temperatures and the turbulence intensity parameter.

Error Check: None

Default: Deposition not computed

-------------
Command: SET TIME

Purpose: Specify following parameters of the simulation: starting time, ending time, (iteration) step size, print interval, number of days in simulation.

Use: The command line is followed by a single data line in format (4i5,f5.0,2i5). The first two numbers are interpreted as the hour and minute on the clock at the start of the simulation; the third and fourth numbers are the hour and minute at the end of the simulation; the fifth number is the number of minutes in an iteration step, defined below; the sixth number is the number of iteration steps between printing concentration results to unit 6; the number of days must be 1 in the present implementation. At the beginning of each iteration time step, new values are determined for chemical reaction rate constants (and/or coagulation rates, if aerosols are simulated and SET COAGULATION VARIABLE is in effect), allowing for change in temperatures or photon fluxes; also new values are determined for outdoor pollutant concentrations, water vapor concentration, ventilation rate and direct indoor emission rates. Within the iteration time
step, the computer performs a number of "integration" steps. During each integration step, the source rates and loss rates for each species are treated as constants, with the values and the length of the time steps determined by the program as needed for convergence.

Error check: none

Default: Start time: 0000; end time: 2400; iteration step size: 1.0 min; number of iterations per print: 30; number of days: 1.

-------------
Command: SET WALLS

Purpose: To specify the total number of surfaces for deposition in each chamber.

Use: The data are input using the format RDI. One or more data lines follow the command line.  Each data line contains a chamber number and the number of surfaces for deposition within the chamber in the format (i4,2x,i4). The command terminates execution when END is found in the first three columns of a line.

Error check: The chamber number must be within limits. Otherwise a warning message is issued and the offending lines ignored.  The number of walls specified must be less than the dimensional limit (NWLIM = 10 in the current version). If this limit is exceeded, the program will suspend execution.

Default: One (1) surface per chamber.

-------------
Command: SOLVE

Purpose: Terminate the input file and begin processing.

Use: This is normally the last line of the command input file. It directs the program to terminate input mode and to begin the simulation. Any subsequent information in the input file is ignored. This command need not be present. If missing, the simulation begins when the end of the file is reached.

-------------
Command: TEXT

Purpose: Permits comments in command input file.

Use: Following the command line TEXT, the program ignores all information, except to echo it to the output file. An asterisk (*) in the first column of a line terminates the command.
 
 


G a s e o u s - S p e c i e s - L i s t

Mechanism date: 5 Feb 87
PSSA = Pseudo Steady-State Approximation


Symbol Name                No.  Indoor Treatment  Outdoor Treatment
------ ------              ---  -----------       -------------
ADD   Aromatic Adduct      30   PSSA              PSSA
ALK   Alkanes               7   Differential      Input
ARO   Aromatic              8   Differential      Input
C2H4  Ethylene              9   Differential      Input
CARB  Carboxylic Acid      25   Differential      Input
CO    Carbon Monoxide      10   Differential      Input
FORM  Formic Acid          26   Differential      Input
FRAD  Radical [O2CH2OH]    31   PSSA              PSSA
H2O2  Hydrogen Peroxide    11   Differential      Input
HBIR  Biradical [C.H2OO.]  32   PSSA              PSSA
HCHO  Formaldehyde          4   Differential      Input
HONO  Nitrous Acid         13   Differential      Input
HNO3  Nitric Acid          16   Differential      Input
HNO4  Peroxy Nitrous Acid  22   Differential      PSSA
HO2   Hydroperoxy radical  21   Differential      PSSA
MGLY  Methyl Glyoxal       27   Differential      Input
N2O5  Dinitrogen Pentoxide 19   Differential      PSSA
NH3   Ammonia              17   Differential      Input
NO    Nitric Oxide          1   Differential      Input
NO2   Nitrogen Dioxide      2   Differential      Input
NO3   Nitrogen Trioxide    20   Differential      PSSA
O1D   Atomic Oxygen        35   PSSA              PSSA
O3    Ozone                 3   Differential      Input
O3P   Atomic Oxygen        36   PSSA              PSSA
OH    Hydroxyl Radical     34   PSSA              PSSA
OLE   Olefins (Alkenes)     6   Differential      Input
PAN   Peroxyacyl Nitrates  12   Differential      Input
RBIR  Biradical [RC.H00.]  33   PSSA              PSSA
RCHO  Higher Carbonyls      5   Differential      Input
RCO3  Peroxyacyl Radical   24   Differential      PSSA
RNO3  Alkyl Nitrate        18   Differential      Input
RNO4  Lmpd Peroxy Nitrate  15   Differential      PSSA
RO    Alkoxyl radical      37   PSSA              PSSA
RO2   Peroxyalkyl radical  23   Differential      PSSA
RONO  Lumped Nitrate       14   Differential      Input
SO2   Sulfur Dioxide       28   Differential      Input
SULF  Sulfate              29   Differential      Input
 
 


S a m p l e - I n p u t - F i l e


TEXT

FILE: CIG002C.DAT

PURPOSE: VALIDATION TEST OF MIAQ4

CHANGE FROM CIG002B: DENSITY OF PARTICLES DECREASED TO 1.4 G/CM^3

CHANGE FROM CIG002A: DENSITY OF PARTICLES INCREASED TO 2.5 G/CM^3; ADD 7.5
LITER PER MINUTE FILTRATION FOR SAMPLING EQUIPMENT (3 X 1 LPM FOR CRMS;
5/30 (DUTY CYCLE) X 12 LPM FOR RDC; 0.5 (ASSUMED EFFICIENCY) X 5 LPM FOR
AEROSOL INSTRUMENTS.

CHANGE FROM CIG002: DENSITY OF PARTICLES INCREASED FROM 1 G/CM^3 TO 2 G/CM^3
AREA OF SURFACES INCREASED TO ACCOUNT FOR TABLES: UPWARD ISOLATED SURFACE
OF 2.25 M^2; ASSUMED TO BE SAME TEMPERATURE AS OTHER SURFACES.

WILLIAM W NAZAROFF
CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
138-78
PASADENA, CA  91125
(818)356-6891
JULY 30, 1987
revised: AUGUST 24, 1987
revised: AUGUST 25, 1987

SIMULATION OF LBL INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH HOUSE
ROOM #1
11-HOUR DECAY OF CIGARETTE SMOKE

REFERENCES:
- BUILDING, BACKGROUNDS, TOTAL AEROSOL PRODUCTION RATE, COMPARISON DATA:
OFFERMANN, F.J., SEXTRO, R.G., FISK, W.J., GRIMSRUD, D.T.,
NAZAROFF, W.W., NERO, A.V., REVZAN, K.L., AND YATER, J.,
CONTROL OF RESPIRABLE PARTICLES IN INDOOR AIR WITH PORTABLE AIR
CLEANERS, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, 19, 1761-1771, 1985.

CONDITIONS:
AEROSOL ONLY
16 BINS, GEOMETRICALLY SPACED IN RANGE 0.09-4.02 UM
NATURAL CONVECTION DEPOSITION, WITH ALL SURFACES AT -1 K
RELATIVE TO AIR
SINGLE CHAMBER BOX, 35.1 M^3 VOLUME
SURFACES: (1) FLOOR 15.64 M^2; (2) CEILING 15.64 M^2; (3) WALLS
38.4 M^2
HEIGHT 2.4 M
VENTILATION AT 0.05 ACH: 0.0293 M^3/MIN
OUTDOOR AEROSOL SAME AS BACKGROUND INITIAL INDOOR AEROSOL, FROM OFFERMANN
ET AL.
SIMULATION BEGINS AT 1100, ENDS AT 2200, TEN HOUR OFFSET IN
COMPUTER TIME (I.E., 000 IN COMPUTER TIME IS 1000 REAL TIME)

ONE MINUTE STEPS, 60 MINUTE REPORTING INTERVAL FOR AER
12-HOUR REPORTING INTERVAL FOR FLX AND DEP.

*
PRESET HOURS  (NO. OF HOURS IN SIMULATION)
   12
SET TIME
    1    0   12    0    1   60    1
SET DATE
19 05 83

PRESET ROOMS (NUMBER OF CHAMBERS)
    1
SET WALLS (CHAMBER, NO. OF WALLS)
   1     4
END
DATA SURFACES (C,W,ORIEN,AREA IN M^2,LENGTH IN M/TEMP IN C)
   1     1  UE 15.64       0.98
 24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0
   1     2  DE 15.64       0.98
 24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0
   1     3  VE  38.4       2.4
 24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0
   1     4  UI   2.25      1.5
 24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0
END
DATA VOLUME (C, VOL IN M^3)
   1    35.1
END
DATA HEIGHT (C, HEIGHT IN M)
   1     2.4
END
DATA INDOOR TEMP
   1
 25.0  25.0  25.0  25.0  25.0  25.0  25.0  25.0  25.0  25.0  25.0  25.0
END

DATA VENT RECIRCULATION (INSTRUMENT FLOW RATE, M^3/MIN)
   1
.0075 .0075 .0075 .0075 .0075 .0075 .0075 .0075 .0075 .0075 .0075 .0075
END
DATA FILTER RECIRCULATING AEROSOL (CHAMBER, BIN, REMOVAL EFFICIENCY)
   1     1  1.0
   1     2  1.0
   1     3  1.0
   1     4  1.0
   1     5  1.0
   1     6  1.0
   1     7  1.0
   1     8  1.0
   1     9  1.0
   1    10  1.0
   1    11  1.0
   1    12  1.0
   1    13  1.0
   1    14  1.0
   1    15  1.0
   1    16  1.0
END

MODEL AEROSOL (SIMULATION OF AEROSOL SPECIES)
DATA AEROSOL DENSITY (KG/M^3)
 1400.0
PRESET COMPONENTS  (AEROSOL COMPONENTS)
    1
PRESET BINS
   16

SET AEROSOL SIZE GEOMETRIC (LIMITS ON AEROSOL DIAMETER, UM)
  0.09     4.02

SET AEROSOL NAMES (NAME OF COMPONENT)
   1  AERO
END
DATA INITIAL AEROSOL (C,A,B,INITIAL CONC., UG/M^3)
   1  AERO     1   5.35
   1  AERO     2   9.91
   1  AERO     3  22.74
   1  AERO     4  32.34
   1  AERO     5  38.04
   1  AERO     6  41.01
   1  AERO     7  70.84
   1  AERO     8  50.08
   1  AERO     9  45.77
   1  AERO    10  58.02
   1  AERO    11  53.45
   1  AERO    12  29.50
   1  AERO    13  11.98
   1  AERO    14   2.11
END

DATA OUTDOOR AEROSOL (C,A,B,MEAN CONC., UG/M^3)
AERO     1
 0.202 0.202 0.202 0.202 0.202 0.202 0.202 0.202 0.202 0.202 0.202 0.202
AERO     2
 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.283 0.283
AERO     3
 0.354 0.354 0.354 0.354 0.354 0.354 0.354 0.354 0.354 0.354 0.354 0.354
AERO     4
 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322
AERO     5
 0.259 0.259 0.259 0.259 0.259 0.259 0.259 0.259 0.259 0.259 0.259 0.259
AERO     6
 0.248 0.248 0.248 0.248 0.248 0.248 0.248 0.248 0.248 0.248 0.248 0.248
AERO     7
 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.312 0.312
AERO     8
 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240
AERO     9
 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240
AERO    10
 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315 0.315
AERO    11
 0.230 0.230 0.230 0.230 0.230 0.230 0.230 0.230 0.230 0.230 0.230 0.230
AERO    12
 0.262 0.262 0.262 0.262 0.262 0.262 0.262 0.262 0.262 0.262 0.262 0.262
AERO    13
 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367
AERO    14
 0.424 0.424 0.424 0.424 0.424 0.424 0.424 0.424 0.424 0.424 0.424 0.424
END

DATA VENT INFILTRATION (INFILTRATION RATE, M^3/MIN)
   1
 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293
END
DATA VENT EXFILTRATION (EXHAUST RATE, M^3/MIN)
   1
 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293 .0293
END

SET COAGULATION FIXED (TEMPERATURE, TURBULENCE INTENSITY)
   298.15    0.0

SET SURFACE LOSS CONVECTION (USE NATURAL CONVECTION MODEL)

DATA THERMOPHORESIS (THERMO COEF. FOR EACH AEROSOL BIN)
   1  0.5061
   2  0.5011
   3  0.4952
   4  0.4882
   5  0.4793
   6  0.4676
   7  0.4525
   8  0.4332
   9  0.4096
  10  0.3824
  11  0.3526
  12  0.3217
  13  0.2910
  14  0.2617
  15  0.2348
  16  0.2107
END

PRINT FLUX (EVERY ELEVENTH INTERVAL)
   11
PRINT DEPOSITION (EVERY ELEVENTH INTERVAL)
   11

SOLVE

 


R e f e r e n c e s


The MIAQ software has been described in the scientific literature. Please use one or both of the following references when publishing or presenting work that uses MIAQ: